Data Recovery Concept

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Disk Arrays (RAID's)

Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) is a storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a logical unit. Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways called "RAID levels", depending on what level of redundancy and performance (via parallel communication) is required.

RAID Types


This technique has striping but no redundancy of data. It offers the best performance but no fault-tolerance.


This type is also known as disk mirroring and consists of at least two drives that duplicate the storage of data. There is no striping. Read performance is improved since either disk can be read at the same time. Write performance is the same as for single disk storage. RAID-1 provides the best performance and the best fault-tolerance in a multi-user system.


This type uses striping across disks with some disks storing error checking and correcting (ECC) information. It has no advantage over RAID-3.


This type uses striping and dedicates one drive to storing parity information. The embedded error checking (ECC) information is used to detect errors. Data recovery is accomplished by calculating the exclusive OR (XOR) of the information recorded on the other drives. Since an I/O operation addresses all drives at the same time, RAID-3 cannot overlap I/O. For this reason, RAID-3 is best for single-user systems with long record applications.


This type uses large stripes, which means you can read records from any single drive. This allows you to take advantage of overlapped I/O for read operations. Since all write operations have to update the parity drive, no I/O overlapping is possible. RAID-4 offers no advantage over RAID-5.


This type includes a rotating parity array, thus addressing the write limitation in RAID-4. Thus, all read and write operations can be overlapped. RAID-5 stores parity information but not redundant data (but parity information can be used to reconstruct data). RAID-5 requires at least three and usually five disks for the array. It's best for multi-user systems in which performance is not critical or which do few write operations.

Parity Tables

Left Synchronous
0 5 6 P
1 4 P 11
2 P 7 10
P 3 8 9
Left Asynchronous
0 3 6 P
1 4 P 9
2 P 7 10
P 5 8 11
Right Synchronous
P 5 6 11
0 P 7 10
1 4 P 9
2 3 8 P
Right Asynchronous
P 3 6 9
0 P 7 10
1 4 P 11
2 5 8 P

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